• Lidar (atmospheric lidar) analysis of TCCON Burgos
  • PM2.5 transport from East Asia and South East Asia haze transport observation and modeling
  • aerosol – cloud – climate interaction modeling using WRF-Chem
  • Tropical cyclone climatology in the Philippines
  • Influence of weather on ambient pollutant concentration
  • Mesoscale weather modeling in the Philippines
  • PM concentration around power plants in Luzon
  • Personal pollutant exposure from Metro Manila traffic.

Gerry Bagtasa (2017). Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to Rainfall in the Philippines. Journal of Climate. Vol 30. pp. 3621-3633.


Tropical cyclone (TC)-induced rainfall (TC rain) in the Philippines was investigated using a combination of ground and satellite observations to produce a blended 64-yr precipitation dataset. A total of 1673 TCs were examined using best track data from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Rainfall from 100 (~1110 km) of the TC center was considered as TC-induced rainfall. TC rain contribution is highest in the northern Philippines, particularly along the western coast of Luzon (up to 54%), and lowest in the southern islands of Mindanao (6%). The high TC rain contribution is attributed to the enhancement of the Asian southwest monsoon by TCs located to the northeast of the Philippines. An unsupervised clustering method, k-means clustering, was used to divide the archipelago into four climate subtypes according to monthly rainfall variation. Interannual variability of rainfall from climate clusters with high TC rain contribution generally follows the variability of TC rain. On the other hand, the variability of low TC rain clusters is mainly influenced by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All clusters show increasing trends of 16.9%–19.3% decade−1 in TC rain percentage contribution since 2000. This study hypothesizes that this increasing trend is due to changes in the characteristics of TC steering mechanisms and thermodynamic properties east of the Philippines in the past one and a half decades.


Rhonalyn L. Vergara, Ernest P. Macalalad, Gerry Bagtasa, Edgar A. Vallar, Maria Cecilia D. Galvez, and Raquel V. Francisco (2017). Correlation of Aerosol Optical Properties with Surface Meteorological Parameters Over Manila. Adv. Sci. Lett. 23, 1448–1451


Aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm together with wavelength exponent (α) and Ångstrom turbidity coefficient (β) obtained from a sunphotometer over Manila were used to analyze their response to the changes in temperature, relative humidity (RH) and zonal wind. Data retrieved for a one year period of measurements (August 2009–July 2010) were used to describe the variations of the aerosol optical properties. Temperature showed weak correlations with the aerosol optical properties. Surface RH confirmed evidence for its influence on aerosols size distribution and dominant aerosol type. Zonal wind demonstrated influences on the prevailing aerosol present at a certain area and caused alteration the amount of its loading.


BA Racoma, CP David, IA Crisologo and G Bagtasa (2016). The Change in Rainfall from Tropical Cyclones due to Orographic Effect of the Sierra Madre Mountain Range in Luzon, Philippines. Phil. Journal of Science. in press.


This paper discusses the Sierra Madre Mountain Range of the Philippines and its associated influence on the intensity and distribution of rainfall during tropical cyclones. Based on Weather and Research Forecasting model simulations, a shift in rainfall was observed in different portions of the country, due to the reduction of the topography of the mountain. Besides increasing the rainfall along the mountain range, a shift in precipitation was observed during Tropical Storm Ondoy, Typhoon Labuyo, and Tropical Storm Mario. It was also observed that the presence of the Sierra Madre Mountain Range slows down the movement of a tropical cyclones, and as such allowing more time for precipitation to form over the country. Wind profiles also suggest that the windward and leeward sides of mountain ranges during Tropical Cyclones changes depending on the storm path. It has been suggested that in predicting the distribution of rainfall, the direction of movement of a tropical cyclone as well as its adjacent areas be taken into great consideration. While the study shows high amounts of variation in the characteristics of different tropical cyclones with respect of the Sierra Madre Mountain Range, the results of this study can provide insights to pre-disaster operations before tropical cyclones approaches land. The decrease in tropical cyclones speed introduced by the Sierra Madre Mountain Range can be used to identify the possible areas that can experience prolonged rains due to the mountain range. Disaster management authorities can also prepare in advance by identifying which locations can experience orographic enhanced precipitation. However, due to the lack of available data and resources, further studies are recommended due to the study presenting limited cases.


Lagmay AMF, Bagtasa G, Crisologo IA, Racoma BAB and David CPC (2015) Volcanoes magnify Metro Manila’s southwest monsoon rains and lethal floods. Front. Earth Sci. 2:36. doi: 10.3389/feart.2014.00036


Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterized by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18–21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million) and its suburbs paralyzing the nation's capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6–9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila..



Melvin Tena, MS Meteorology“Statistical Forecasting of Thunderstorms in Metro Manila”

Joey Figuracion, MS Meteorology– “Determination of Z-R Relationship for Radar-Based Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (Qpe) Using In-Situ Measurements in Metro Manila”

Benjamin Ona (2017) – “Experimental Simulation of Aerosol Effect to Landfalling Tropical Cyclones Over Philippine Coast: Virtual Seeding using WRF model”

Jeewan W. Karunaratna (2017) – “Sensitivity of Cumulus and Microphysics Parameterization Schemes in WRF Model and Impact of Data Assimilation on the Forecast Skill for Sri Lanka”

Rosemarie Marasigan (2016) – “Characterization of Local Frost Events in Benguet, Philippines”

John Christian Lequiron (2015) – “Factors Affecting Air Surface Temperature Variations in the Philippines”

Mark Daryl Ramos (2014) – “”



Nikos Penaranda (2011) – “Characteristics of Thunderstorm Activity Using Cloud‐to‐Ground Lightning Data”


Irwin Aguilar, MS Meteorology“Local Prediction of Precipitation Occurrence/Nonoccurrence and Intensity during Southwest Monsoon over Metro Manila and Nearby Selected Provinces”

Jhunace Planea, MS Meteorology – “A Probe on the 10-Year Lightning Activity and Rainfall Measurements in the Philippines Observed by the TRMM Satellite: Its Relationships, Trend and Variability”

Karlo Timbal, MS meteorology – “Typhoons Affecting Monsoon Rainfall in the Philippines”

Christine Protacio

Louis Jane Rico

Alex Cristobal Garibay

Andrei Casim

Justin Maris Natividad

Charlindo Torrion

Jerome Tolentino

Erwin Molina

Mark Daryl Ramos

  • “Tempospatial Distribution and Transboundary Transport of Atmospheric Fine Particles across Bashi Channel, Taiwan Strait, and South China Sea” funded by DOST under the Meco-Teco program.
  •  “Creating cost-effective sensors for IR applications: High Resolution Simulation and Verification of Local CO 2 Flux in the Philippines” funded by the OVPAA Emerging Inter-Disciplinary Research (EIDR) program.
  •  Inter-decadal and interannual variability of Tropical cyclone wind energy exposure in the Philippines.
  •  Climatic changes in Metro Manila